There is considerable interest worldwide in the research
which could be done at a next generation, advanced radioactive
beam facility. To generate high quality, intense beams of accelerated
radionuclides via the "isotope separator on-line" (ISOL)
method requires two major accelerator components: a high power
(100 kW) driver device to produce radionuclides in a production
target/ion source complex, and a secondary beam accelerator to
produce beams of radioactive ions up to energies on the order
of 10 MeV per nucleon over a broad mass range. In reviewing the
technological challenges of such a facility, several types of
modern linear accelerators appear well suited. This paper reviews
the properties of the linacs currently under construction and
those proposed for future facilities for use either as the driver
device or the radioactive beam post-accelerator. Other choices
of accelerators, such as cyclotrons, for either the driver or
secondary beam devices of a radioactive beam complex will also
be compared. Issues to be addressed for the production accelerator
include the choice of ion beam types to be used for cost-effective
production of radionuclides. For the post-accelerator the choice
of ion source technology is critical and dictates the charge-to-mass
requirements at the injection stage.
There are about 20 nuclear physics laboratories around the world which are either currently active in basic research with accelerated radioactive beams or are proposing new facilities for such research. Two major studies have been carried out recently to consider the research opportunities and technical options for future radioactive beam facilities, one by a North American committee  and the other by a European committee . In the recently completed 1996 Long Range Plan for nuclear physics in the United States, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee has recommended high priority for investment by the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy in accelerator facilities to create advanced capabilities for research with radioactive beams.
One method of generating energetic beams of short-lived isotopes is via peripheral nuclear reactions with primary beams of stable heavy ions which are directly accelerated to energies per nucleon in the range of 50-1000 MeV. At such high energies the kinematics of these reactions are such that the secondary beams have relatively good transverse and longitudinal emittances and, after separation in the beamlines via magnetic rigidity and differential energy loss in absorbers, are appropriate for a variety of nuclear reaction studies. There are several laboratories which are currently doing research with radioactive beams generated via this fragmentation mechanism; examples are GSI near Darmstadt in Germany, GANIL in Caen, France, NSCL in East Lansing, Michigan, and RIKEN near Tokyo, Japan.
A variation on the fragmentation method is to create secondary beams of radioactive ions in the beamline at lower energies via nuclear transfer reactions utilizing inverse kinematics. The details of producing a beam of the short-lived radionuclide 17F via this method for nuclear astrophysics studies at ATLAS are given in a contribution to this conference .
A second general method of generating radioactive beams is known
as the two-accelerator or ISOL (Isotope Separator On-line) method.
The ISOL technique has been used for over thirty years to produce,
ionize, mass separate, and study short-lived nuclear isotopes.
ISOLDE  at CERN is a premier example of a facility based on
this technique. At ISOLDE radionuclides are produced via nuclear
spallation reactions with 1 GeV proton beams from the Booster
synchrotron which is part of the high energy accelerator chain
at CERN. Other ISOL facilities are based at research reactors
and use thermal neutron fission of 235U as the radionuclide
production mechanism; the OSIRIS facility at the reactor in Studsvik,
Sweden is an example of this type. Using the ISOL method for the
production of radioactive beams at energies high enough for nuclear
reaction studies is a relatively new concept which has not been
used extensively to date. Pioneering work to develop accelerated
radioactive beams using this method has been carried out at Louvin-la-Neuve
. The present paper addresses the issues involved in selecting
appropriate accelerators for both the driver and secondary beams
for ISOL-type facilities.
An ISOL-type accelerated radioactive beam facility comprises several major components: the primary beam (driver) accelerator or reactor to create the radionuclides, the target/ion source complex, a high resolution mass separator, the secondary beam accelerator, and a variety of experimental areas and apparatus for the research program. A schematic technical layout of such a facility as envisioned by the Iso-Spin Laboratory study  was presented by J.M. Nitschke .
Of the several laboratories around the world which are either constructing or proposing new radioactive beam facilities there are a wide variety of choices of primary and secondary beam accelerators. In most cases radioactive beam facilities are evolving via upgrades or modifications to existing nuclear physics laboratories by adapting and utilizing one or more existing accelerators. In some cases the radioactive beam facilities are attached to production accelerators or reactors which exist primarily for other applications.
|Project/Laboratory||Location||Primary beam accelerator||Secondary beam accelerator||Status|
|HRIBF||Oak Ridge||Cyclotron, k = 100 MeV||Tandem, 25 MV||Commission, '96|
|Cyclotron, k = 200-250 p||Tandem + SC Booster, 50 MV||R&D|
|INS||Tokyo||Cyclotron, k = 67 MeV||RFQ + IH Linac, 14 MV||Test, 1996|
|Tsukuba||Synchrotron, 3 GeV p||RFQ + IH Linac||JHP future|
|ARENAS||Louvain-la-Neuve||Cyclotron, k = 110 MeV||Cyclotron, k = 44 MeV||Constr./1998|
|SPIRAL/GANIL||Caen||Cyclotrons, k = 400 (HI)||Cyclotron, k = 265 MeV||Constr./1998|
|REX-ISOLDE||CERN||Synchrotron, 1 GeV p||RFQ + IH Linac, 16 MV||Constr./1998|
|ISAC/TRIUMF||Vancouver||Cyclotron, k = 500 (H-)||RFQ + IH Linac, 13 MV||Constr./2000|
|PIAFE||Grenoble||Reactor, thermal n||Cyclotrons, k = 88, 160 MeV||R&D|
|ATLAS||Argonne||Linac, 245 MV||RFQ + SC Linac, 70 MV||R&D|
To illustrate some of this variety, the configurations of a few ISOL-type radioactive facilities are listed in Table 1. A review of these new projects and others, including fragmentation-type facilities, was given by A. Mueller ; progress reports on several specific facilities will be included in the proceedings of the recent Fourth International Conference on Radioactive Nuclear Beams. Some of the challenges to be confronted in developing powerful, broad-based ISOL-type radioactive beam facilities are:
High intensity radioactive beams,
Cost effective solutions,
Exotic beams/ far from stable isotopes,
Excellent beam quality and energy variability,
Broad mass range of secondary beams,
High resolution isobar separation,
Diagnostics for tuning weak exotic beams,
Target/ion sources for high power primary beams,
Shielding and remote handling at production target.
Below, in separate sections, primary and secondary
beam accelerators are discussed.
A general-purpose facility for producing intense
accelerated radioactive nuclear beams must incorporate a powerful
driver device to generate large quantities of radionuclides. Some
ISOL facilities have been located at high-flux research reactors
to produce and study the neutron-rich isotopes produced via thermal
neutron-induced fission of 235U. The new radioactive
beam project PIAFE , listed in Table 1, will utilize the ILL
reactor at Grenoble as the production device. All other present
projects are using or planning to use some type of accelerator
as the driver device; either a synchrotron, cyclotron, or linac
in various implementations. Essentially all existing or proposed
radioactive beam facilities utilize either a pre-existing driver
device or post accelerator, or both. The only proposed "green
field" facility listed in Table 1 is that planned as part
of the Japanese Hadron Project. Even in this case, however, the
radioactive beam capability will coexist with other major research
interests in an extensive accelerator complex.
The choice of driver device for a radioactive beam facility is intimately related to the overall goals of the laboratory and the capabilities of the secondary beam accelerator. In many instances, as mentioned above, the driver device is pre-existing and the other components must be adapted to its capabilities. For example, a reactor is a prolific source of medium-mass, neutron-rich radionuclides which result from thermal neutron fission. Hence, Phase II of the new PIAFE facility will be dedicated to the acceleration and study of nuclear reactions with this class of radionuclides. On the other hand, high energy proton synchrotrons can prolifically produce both proton-rich and neutron-rich isotopes over a broad mass range via the spallation reaction mechanism. The REX-ISOLDE collaboration  is constructing a secondary beam accelerator at ISOLDE to utilize the existing synchrotron and ion source infrastructure at that facility.
However, the costs of reactors and GeV energy proton synchrotrons
probably exclude them from consideration as dedicated drivers
for future radioactive beam facilities. For the production of
radionuclides there are a variety of nuclear reaction mechanisms
at the disposal of designers. With primary beams of protons and
heavy ions in the energy range of 10's to 100's of MeV per nucleon
several reaction mechanisms can be utilized: compound nucleus/fusion-evaporation
reactions, primarily for proton-rich products; light-ion induced
fission, primarily for medium mass, neutron-rich products; spallation
reactions with intermediate energy
(~100 MeV per nucleon) heavy ions; and fragmentation of heavy ions such as 18O. A desirable driver accelerator for an advanced radioactive beam facility is one capable of delivering a variety of beam types over a range of beam energies. Such flexibility permits selecting a beam/target combination and an associated reaction mechanism to selectively populate radionuclides in a specific mass region.
A Proposed Heavy-Ion Linac Driver
A driver accelerator with a beam power of up to 100 kW would be desirable for radioactive beam production. Most experience to date is with up to a few kilowatts of beam power and improvements in target/ion source technology are expected to lead to higher beam powers being feasible. A linear accelerator capable of delivering a variety of ion species with beam power up to 100 kW at energies per nucleon of 100 MeV is shown schematically in Fig. 1. This is the type of driver accelerator suggested by the Argonne group in a working paper . To accelerate light ions, such as 1H, 2H, and 4He, a multicusp or microwave ion source and a light-ion RFQ would be used in the injector. Whereas, for heavy ions, such as 18O, would require an ECR ion source operating with an m/q of 6, pre-acceleration in an RFQ and ion linac to an energy per nucleon of 5 MeV for stripping a higher charge state for further acceleration to 100 MeV per nucleon.
Fig. 1. Schematic view of a high-beam-power linac
to deliver a variety of ion beams for radionuclide production.
Conventional Linac Option. The driver shown schematically in Fig. 1 could be implemented as a conventional linac with the parameters indicated in Table 2. The linac main stage could be a conventional DTL or possibly a CCDTL structure . A preliminary physics design study of the DTL configuration for the heavy ions has been carried out by AccSys Technology, Inc. . As indicated in Table 2 the beam currents for the heavy ions would be limited by the ion sources rather than by the linac beam power capability, due to the high peak current requirement.
Superconducting Linac Option. An alternative to the conventional DTL or CCDTL linac discussed above is a superconducting linear accelerator. This would involve the extension of the well-established technology now used for low energy heavy ion linacs to higher beam currents and to a somewhat higher velocity regime. Two technical advantages of a superconducting linac with CW beams are: (a) the continuous beam would eliminate a potential problem with voltage ripple at the production target/ion source, and (b) the heavy ion beam intensities available from a DC ion source would permit the achievement of much higher beam powers than with the low duty cycle conventional linac (as indicated in Table 2). Furthermore, the superconducting option is likely to be significantly less expensive to operate, by an estimated $2M/year, due to a much lower electrical power requirement and the elimination of the maintenance of the set of high-peak-power klystrons required for the conventional linac.
By using independently phased two- or three-gap superconducting
resonators the velocity range possible with such structures would
permit the nominally 200 MV linac to deliver beams of 200 MeV
protons as well as the 100 MeV per nucleon heavy ions with m/q~2
as discussed above; this is a very useful additional beam for
radionuclide production purposes. There are several well established
superconducting structures for ion velocities up to about 0.15c
, but this application would require the extension of this
technology up to v = 0.55c. Prototypes of structures which could
possibly be modified for operation in this velocity regime have
been developed and tested by Delayen, et al. , one
of which is illustrated in Fig. 2. Alternate geometries, including
a "spoke" structure, have been proposed by Delayen,
et al. .
|Max Output Beam Energy:||100 MeV per nucleon|
|Max Output Beam Power:||100 kW|
|Typical Light Ions:
(microwave ion source)
|1H, 2H, 4He|
|Typical Heavy Ions:
(pulsed ECR ion source)
|12C2+,6+; 16,18O3+,8+; 20,22Ne4+,10+; 36Ar6+,16+|
|Typical Max. Currents:
(Light Ions @100 kW)
|1H, 1 mA; 2H, 0.5 mA; 4He, 0.25 pmA|
|Typical Max. Currents:
(Heavy Ions @100 kW)
|18O8+, 55 pµA; 36Ar16+, 28 pµA|
|Typical Ion Currents:
|18O8+, 20 pµA; 36Ar16+, 3 pµA|
Output Energy Variation:
5 MeV/u output @q/m = 1/6, (30 MV)
100 MeV/u out @q/m = 8/18, (215 MV)
2.5% @ 120 Hz
Pulse-pulse ion source and energy variation possible
Fig. 2. A two-gap superconducting niobium resonator
which was constructed and tested at ANL by Delayen, et al.
Papers presented at this conference by K.C. Chan and G. Geschonke
discuss possible uses of superconducting linear accelerators for
very high power applications, such as for neutron spallation sources,
transmutation of waste, and production of tritium. To date these
applications are considering superconducting structures for velocities
above 0.5c, to be operated at higher frequencies and lower temperatures.
For the radioactive beam driver accelerator application it seems
desirable to keep the frequency below about 400 MHz so that operation
at 4.5 K is economically feasible. To keep the capital cost of
a superconducting driver competitive with that of a conventional
linac, efficient fabrication methods for structures in this low-velocity
regime will have to be developed .
Other Driver Accelerator Options.
As indicated in Table 1 above several radioactive beam projects are using synchrotrons or cyclotrons as the driver accelerators. Synchrotrons are generally used in projects which share the accelerator with other applications, typically for high energy physics research, as in the case of ISOLDE and the Japanese Hadron Project. There is also the possibility that there will be a proposal to use the rapid cycling synchrotron of the ISIS facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Great Britain as the driver for a future radioactive beam facility . These synchrotrons use high energy protons to produce radionuclides via spallation reactions.
The cyclotrons at GANIL will be used with beam power up to 6 kW and a variety of species from deuterons to heavy ions at energies up to 100 MeV per nucleon to produce radionuclides for the new SPIRAL facility  via various production mechanisms including fragmentation and light ion induced fission. The cyclotrons at GANIL have been in operation for several years for basic research in nuclear physics including the production of radioactive beams via the fragmentation mechanism. The SPIRAL project is an upgrade which gives the laboratory the option to produce radioactive beams via both fragmentation and the ISOL-method.
Similarly, the existing 500-MeV H- cyclotron at TRIUMF will be used as the driver for the new ISAC radioactive beam project . The initial plans are to use beam currents up to 10 A, and to increase to higher currents as the target/ion source technology permits.
The HRIBF project , currently in commissioning
stages at ORNL, is using the existing ORIC cyclotron as the driver,
but there are plans to possibly upgrade to an advanced radioactive
beam facility in the future, which would involve the addition
of a more powerful driver accelerator. Various types of cyclotron
are currently under consideration, including compact superconducting
and conventional separated sector styles , either of which
could deliver 250 MeV proton beams at currents of 100-200 A. A
review of cyclotrons which could be constructed for use as drivers
was given recently by Y. Jongen .
The requirements of the post-accelerator of an advanced
radioactive beam facility are to a large extent dictated by the
choice of ion source for the secondary beams. Two common classes
of ion source are the standard ISOL-type 1+ sources as used at
ISOLDE , GSI , and other on-line isotope separator facilities,
and higher charge-state sources as are planned for use, for example,
at SPIRAL . The ISOL-type 1+ ion sources have been developed
to have high efficiencies and excellent emittances for a broad
range of elements, but place great demands on the post-accelerator
due to the very low q/m values for heavy masses. ECR ion sources
generally have worse emittances, but have been demonstrated to
have good efficiencies for noble gases, and are under development
for other elements . Other developments are in progress to
use ISOL-type ion sources in combination with an ion trap plus
an EBIS device  or with an ECR "catcher"  to
increase the charge states.
Post-Accelerators Based on Linacs.
The Argonne Post-Accelerator Proposal. The Argonne concept for an advanced radioactive beam facility  is to build on the present capability of the ATLAS superconducting linacs to deliver beams from protons to uranium with excellent transverse and longitudinal beam quality . The injector stage of the post-accelerator is being designed  to start with 1+ ions with masses up to about 200 from ISOL-type ion sources; a schematic layout is shown in Fig. 3. The design of a CW, low-frequency RFQ for the first stage of this injector was presented at this conference . This concept involves stripping of the 1+ ions to 2+ or 3+ after the first stage RFQ. High stripping efficiencies with very low multiple scattering (<1 mr) have been demonstrated for Kr, Xe, and Pb ions using a low-pressure windowless gas cell ; charge-state fractions for 1-MeV Pb ions in helium and nitrogen are shown in Fig. 4.
Fig. 3. Block diagram of the ANL concept for a radioactive
beam pre-accelerator beginning with 1+, mass 132 ions from an
ISOL-type ion source.
RFQ + IH-Linac Combinations. Several radioactive beam facilities
[19, 30, 9, 31] are using normally conducting low-frequency RFQ
structures followed by IH-linacs to take advantage of the high
shunt impedances obtainable with such structures. Two of these
[19, 31] will operate CW.
Fig. 4. Charge state distributions for 1-MeV 208Pb
ions in thin helium and nitrogen gas, illustrating the enhancement
of 3+ ions from helium relative to nitrogen .
Other Post-Accelerator Options.
Cyclotrons. The SPIRAL , ARENAS , and PIAFE  projects will all use cyclotrons as the radioactive beam post-accelerators. The CIME cyclotron, currently nearing completion at GANIL for the SPIRAL project is shown schematically in Fig. 5. A specific advantage of cyclotrons over linacs is that being isochronous and with high turn numbers they are m/q selective with resolutions up to 10,000. A disadvantage is that, to achieve high beam energies, ions with relatively high q/m values are required.
Fig. 5. CAD layout of the CIME k = 265 MeV cyclotron
currently under construction at GANIL as the post accelerator
for the SPIRAL radioactive beam project.
Tandems. The HRIBF facility at Oak Ridge is using the existing 25 MV tandem as the post accelerator . It produces beams with low transverse emittance at energies useful for nuclear physics over a broad mass range for any ion species which can be either directly extracted as or charge exchanged into a negative ion.
This research was supported by the US DOE Nuclear Physics Division
under contract W-31-109-ENG-38.
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